American Dream, Analysis, cinema, controversy, D.W. Griffith, Film, hero, history, Hollywood, motion picture production, Movies, race relations, racial stereotypes, silent movies, The Clansman, Trayvon Martin, villain, War

The Rebirth of a Nation — Part 1: Heroes and Villains

“The nation [the founders] envisioned and created was a white supremacist nation. Meaning, it was founded on the notion that whites should rule, that whites had superior ability to rule, that the nation should be a white republic, and that people of color surely should not have equal rights with whites.” – Tim Wise

When The Birth of a Nation (“BOAN”) was released 97 years ago in 1915, it was heralded for its technical innovations and was the first film screened at the White House.  However, many – including the NAACP – protested BOAN’s degrading black stereotypes, glorification of the Ku Klux Klan, and its racist propaganda dressed up as historical representation.  Despite its controversies, BOAN is a valuable part of my film collection.  It is a movie that I watch and refer to regularly.  The hegemonic worldview expressed in BOAN is still very relevant, unfortunately, and offers great insights about the ongoing pervasiveness of American racism, even more so in the wake of the Trayvon Martin tragedy.

BOAN dramatizes the Civil War and its consequences from the perspectives of two families – the Stonemans from the North and the Camerons from the South.  Life in the South before the war was depicted as idyllic.  Whites reigned supreme while blacks were carefree and content in their subservient roles.  After the war, however, the defeated Southerners fell under the rule of “carpetbaggers.”  They also found themselves vulnerable to the newly freed slaves who outnumbered them, had voting rights, violent tendencies and the audacity to pursue white women.  The Southerners responded to this threat to their existence by forming an underground vigilante group to restore “order” to the South, and hence the Ku Klux Klan was born.

“Why not retain and incorporate the blacks into the state…?  Deep rooted prejudices entertained by the whites; ten thousand recollections, by the blacks, of the injuries they have sustained…will divide us into parties, and produce convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of the one or the other race.” – Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia

Jefferson’s quote reflects the inconsistencies on which this nation was founded – contradictions that have yet to be meaningfully recognized.  On the one hand, this slave-owning author of the Declaration of Independence acknowledged the “injuries” inflicted on blacks due to racial discrimination.  On the other hand, however, Jefferson rationalized that it was in America’s best interest to deny blacks equal rights and protections under the Constitution in order to avoid retaliation and anarchy.  

“I felt a little bit threatened, if you will, in the attitude that [President Obama] had.” – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer

As if taking a cue from Jefferson, BOAN depicted the newly emancipated blacks as irresponsible, brutal and out of control.  The abuse of their newly acquired political power left whites disenfranchised and helpless to do anything about it.  Left to their own devices, blacks were well on their way to taking over the nation.  That is until the Ku Klux Klan rode in and saved America.   Using intimidation, coercion and violence to oppress blacks, the Klan’s methods were deemed necessary to preserve the nation.  The end justified the means.  Could this be why an unarmed man can be shot 41 times and his murderers set free?  Perhaps this explains why a man who was outnumbered and beaten savagely on videotape was perceived as the aggressor.  Is this why Trayvon Martin, armed only with a cell phone, Skittles and ice tea, was shot to death and his assailant, George Zimmerman, has so far avoided murder charges by claiming self-defense?  Adding insult to injury, it has been reported Zimmerman “suffers” from PTSD – as if that’s any comparison to being DEAD.  

“It’s time this generation learned the difference between a villain and a hero.” – J. Edgar Hoover

The irony of quoting Hoover on this topic aside, the concept of heroes and villains works well in fiction.  In BOAN, the villainous blacks are returned to a submissive position by the heroic Ku Klux Klan.  The Klan’s savior status is denoted by the superimposed images of Christ and a Klansman in the final minutes of the film.  Therefore, it stands to reason, according to BOAN, that if the Klan is godly, then blacks are the direct opposite.  However, in real life using the “good versus evil” rubric to assess others often leads to tragic consequences.  Dehumanizing and demonizing one’s opponents and/or those with whom you are unfamiliar results in a delusional sense of self-righteousness and an unwillingness to consider different points of view.  Peaceful resolutions are replaced by ongoing conflict and domination. 

“If you’re black, you gotta look at America a little bit different. You gotta look at America like the uncle who paid for you to go to college but molested you.” – Chris Rock

America likes to see itself as the land of freedom, justice and opportunity – a harmonious, multi-cultural melting pot.  That is not my reality though I yearn for that ideal.  In my America, racial discrimination and stereotyping are constant companions.  Racism does not always involve physical violence, although its emotional toll can be just as destructive over time.  Its more subtle forms include low expectations, backhanded compliments and hasty assumptions. 

History informs me that demanding Zimmerman’s arrest is not enough.  Based on the way this case has been handled so far and the efforts to criminalize Martin, the state of Florida is incapable of conducting a fair trial.  This case must be prosecuted on the federal level.  There also needs to be a major shake-up in the Sanford Police Department. Resignations/terminations are not sufficient.  The conduct of the police and state attorney’s office should be thoroughly investigated.  Negligent law enforcement officers must be prosecuted and their pensions should be revoked.  Maybe then they will value the rights of everyone they are supposed to “serve and protect.”  Finally, looking to the future, now is the time to push for legislation about racial profiling with specific guidelines and consequences applicable to both law enforcement officials and civilians. 

Frank Costello: “When I was growing up, they would say you could become cops or criminals. But what I’m saying is this. When you’re facing a loaded gun, what’s the difference?” – The Departed

The Ku Klux Klan’s hoods versus Trayvon Martin’s hoodie – who’s the hero and who’s the villain?  Whether it’s on the screen in BOAN or in real life, the designation of heroes and villains is not absolute.  There are many shades of gray.  The real dilemma is not in the “hero” and “villain” designations; it is in the desire to categorize them in the first place.  After all, the concept of heroes and villains is relative.  Much depends on which end of the proverbial loaded gun you find yourself on. 

What will it take for this nation to be reborn? 

TO BE CONCLUDED

“The Rebirth of a Nation – Part 2: Truth and Reconciliation”

1990's, Analysis, black cast, Cameron Crowe, cinema, comedy, Cuba Gooding Jr., Film, Jerry Maguire, Movies, Regina King, Tom Cruise

Reinterpreting Jerry Maguire: Show Me the Money?

More than 15 years ago, I enthusiastically endured the Friday night multitude in Times Square to experience Jerry Maguire.  As a fan of Tom Cruise and writer/director Cameron Crowe, my high expectations were more than met.  The film was well written, well-acted, and the laughs came early and often.  I was particularly moved by the loving and supportive interplay between Rod Tidwell (Cuba Gooding, Jr.) and his wife Marcee (Regina King).  Fully realized, multidimensional black characters are so rare, unfortunately, that such portrayals continue to be a welcome surprise.  I also enjoyed watching the friendship develop between Rod and Jerry (Tom Cruise).  Theirs was a relationship devoid of clichés and stereotypes.  Or was it?   

The pivotal “Show me the money!” scene dramatizes the differences between Rod and Jerry.  As the head of a close-knit family, Rod is shown in the kitchen with his wife, brother and son.  He is physically present and emotionally available.  Though on the phone discussing business, Rod supervises his son’s behavior and guides him to remove his plate from the table.  His family’s needs and wishes are Rod’s top priorities.  Jerry, on the other hand, is in his office isolated from others both physically and emotionally.  Jerry is concerned only about himself as he desperately struggles to retain his clients after being fired.

On the surface, Rod and Jerry need each other to salvage their respective careers.  As always, however, the subtext is way more interesting.  As you view the scene, imagine that Rod is in the same room with Jerry and positioned directly behind him.  Note Rod’s pelvic thrusts to the rap music and Jerry’s defeated posture.  What do you see?  Does the scene reflect any racially divisive fears, beliefs and/or stereotypes?  How does this affect the scene’s dynamics?

Analysis, Anthony Hemingway, black cast, Film, film industry, George Lucas, Hollywood, motion picture industry, movie war heroes, Movies, race relations, Red Tails, Reviews, Tuskegee Airmen

Red Tails: A Bad Movie with Good Intentions

“My girlfriend is black, and I’ve learned a lot about racism including the fact that it hasn’t gone away, especially in American business.  But on a social level there’s less prejudice than there was. So I figured, let’s put another hero up there.” – George Lucas

Red Tails, the action drama about Tuskegee Airmen during World War II, opened in theaters nationwide today.  George Lucas’s herculean efforts to get the film made – which included personally financing the project to the tune of $93 million – are well documented.  Over the past few weeks I have received numerous messages via e-mail, Facebook and radio strongly urging support of this film during its opening weekend.  This is supposed to send an unmistakable message to Hollywood power brokers to make more “positive” black films.  Really?  I think not.  Begging through the box office – as proven time and time again – is not an effective way to get more racially balanced, multi-dimensional and realistic images from the film industry.  Also, despite the film’s historical significance and Lucas’s good intentions, Red Tails is not worthy of the cause célèbre status that has been bestowed upon it by many in the African American community. 

“I’m making it for black teenagers.  They have a right to have their history just like anybody else does.” – George Lucas

Of course everyone should know and claim their history, but it is the height of paternalistic arrogance for Lucas to determine what that should be for black teenagers.  Red Tails was historically shallow and predictable in a cartoonish way.  More attention was given to the action scenes than to story and character development.  There was no sense of the black pilots’ familial ties, experiences in America, or expectations and hopes.  Their motivations – beyond patriotism – were unclear. Other possible motivating factors, such as making their communities and loved ones proud and/or expanding career options, were not explored.  One of the pilots carried a photo of black Jesus which was very progressive for the 1940s. Unfortunately, that pilot crashed and was badly burned.  I leave you to interpret that subtext for yourself.

The pervasiveness of racism à la Jim Crow was watered down when dealt with at all.  One such scene took place in the segregated officers’ club.  The Tuskegee Airmen were invited in by the white officers and treated to drinks after a successful mission.  One of the Tuskegee pilots, Smoky (Ne-Yo), chose to share an oft-told, corny joke about color.  The gist of the “comic” story was that whites turn various colors depending on their emotions, yet they call black people colored.  The white and black officers shared a laugh.  Kumbaya! This unrealistic, contrived, feel-good moment glossed over the complexity of racism.  During the Jim Crow era, I find it hard to believe that black officers would enter a segregated officers’ club, even if invited.  They would create their own gathering space to relax and let loose.  If they did take that risk, however, they certainly wouldn’t tell a joke about whites while there.  However, in Lucas’s world, all is well over a beer.  How does this fanciful nostalgia benefit black teenagers?  I have no idea.

“I realize that by accident I’ve now put the black film community at risk [with Red Tails, whose $58 million budget far exceeds typical all-black productions].  I’m saying, if this doesn’t work, there’s a good chance you’ll stay where you are for quite a while. It’ll be harder for you guys to break out of that [lower-budget] mold. But if I can break through with this movie, then hopefully there will be someone else out there saying let’s make a prequel and sequel, and soon you have more Tyler Perrys out there.” – George Lucas

So now the man who gave us Jar Jar Binks sees himself as the savior of black films?  Lucas means well but he just doesn’t get it.  Nor do the others who have rallied around Red Tails as if its fate determines the future of black film production.  Let’s be clear, if Red Tails nosedives at the box office, it will not be because it has a predominantly black cast or lacked publicity.  It will not be because we do not support films with “positive” black images.  Nor will it be due to lack of interest in the courageous Tuskegee Airmen.  It will be for one reason and one reason only – it is a bad film.  Period.   I must confess that it has been fun watching Lucas, who has profited greatly through the Hollywood system, recreate himself as an outsider for the purpose of promoting this film.

“Long-term power is more important than short-term money.” – Warrington Hudlin

Once upon a time, we had independent filmmakers like Oscar Micheaux and Spencer Williams who made films specifically for black audiences.   Hollywood noticed their popularity and made their own, more expensive versions of black films.  Black audiences, favoring the splashier productions, abandoned the independent films and have been at Hollywood’s mercy ever since.  Hollywood is not changing, but we can by no longer settling for whatever is tossed our way.  We can actively seek and support independently produced movies that are entertaining and offer a variety of images and stories. 

Brothers and sisters, fret not.  Starting next month, all six of the Star Wars movies will be theatrically re-released in 3-D.  Whatever fate befalls Red Tails, George Lucas is going to be alright.  What about us?  When will we finally accept that it is a waste of time to solicit an industry that misrepresents us over and over again?  Soon, I hope.

Adaptations, Analysis, Black women, cinema, Film, For Colored Girls, Hollywood, Movies, race relations, Reviews, The Help, Waiting to Exhale

The Help For Colored Girls Who Are Still Waiting to Exhale

“The black woman is the mule of the world.” — Zora Neale Hurston

Being a black woman in America is to be rendered irrelevant, irreverent and invisible on a daily basis.  Nowhere is this reflected more than on television and in the movies.  We are often shown denigrating each other, raising hell, trying to snare a man à la Flava Flav, or vexing over the identity of the baby daddy.  Other depictions include the jump-off, Mother Earth, confidante, tormentor, victim, and objects of ridicule by men in drag.  The lack of non-stereotypical, relatable images is why the release of such films as Waiting to Exhale, For Colored Girls and, currently, The Help become major events for many of us.  In groups we attend screenings and gather for live and online discussions.  Some are just happy to see themselves, while others yearn for realistic, multi-dimensional characterizations that, unfortunately, are few and very far between.  Perhaps there is an unspoken wish for inspirational and empowering images – a shero – instead of the usual cautionary tales.  As for me, my expectations were tempered long ago.

Waiting to Exhale
 
Even though I was a fan of the book and looked forward to its release, Waiting to Exhale has become unwatchable over the years.  Much of what made it a compelling novel was discarded in the adaptation.  Though the movie featured four black women prominently, the underlying, not so subtle theme was:  White women are more desirable than black women.  The only two scenes worth revisiting feature Bernadine (Angela Bassett): the cathartic car burning and Bernadine’s encounter with James (Wesley Snipes) at a hotel bar.  Their too-brief interaction took the movie to a deeper dimension with unfulfilled promise.  Having read the sequel Getting to Happy, which is now in pre-production, I have no desire to see that as a film.  The good news is the novel is so atrocious that any adaptation will be an improvement.
 
For Colored Girls

Seeing the staged production of For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow is Enuf for the first time in the 1970s was an unforgettable experience.  Blown away by the poetry, storytelling and the performances, I left the theatre feeling rejuvenated and ready to take on the world.  I doubted the play with its non-linear narrative could be successfully adapted to film.  My skepticism quickly changed to a strong sense of foreboding when I learned that Tyler Perry would be at the helm.  From the business perspective, I understand why Perry was selected.  His track record at the box office is impressive and he has cultivated a loyal audience.  However, Perry was totally inappropriate for the material.  His forte is comedy – exaggerated, over-the-top comedy with stereotypes and clichés.   His few attempts at drama have been heavy-handed and well-intentioned at best.

Perry’s interpretation of For Colored Girls left me emotionally drained and in need of a nap.  The plotlines were thin and the characters were not well developed.  There were some great performances, including standouts Anika Noni Rose and Phylicia Rashad.  There were, however, missed dramatic opportunities.  Yasmine/Yellow (Rose) was denied the chance to confront her rapist.  Instead her “redemption” was to slap his cold, lifeless face as he laid in the morgue.  The story would have been greatly enriched and more depth added to Yasmine’s character if we had followed her efforts to put the rapist behind bars.  Instead a clumsily, contrived situation was introduced to wrap up her storyline.  What a copout!  In frustration I could only imagine how much more directors like Gina Prince-Bythewood, Kasi Lemmons and Julie Dash would have brought to the production.  I really appreciate August Wilson for insisting on director approval before his plays could be adapted to the big screen.  Can you imagine Perry or one of the Wayans directing Fences?

The Help

In the 1934 version of Imitation of Life, Bea (Claudette Colbert) gets rich from her maid’s (Louise Beavers) pancake recipe.  Delilah (Beavers) wants no share of the profits and is content to continue as Bea’s maid.  There is a scene where the two women turn in for the night.  Bea ascends the stairs as Delilah descends to her room downstairs.  That scene summed up the movie: Black people are happy in their place – tending to the needs of whites.  That same sense of “selflessness” is present nearly 80 years later in The Help, which begins and ends with Aibileen (Viola Davis) comforting and encouraging white females.

“You is kind.  You is smart.  You is important.” – Aibileen

Like Delilah, Aibileen is greatly responsible for Skeeter’s (Emma Stone) success.  When Skeeter is offered a new job in New York, Aibileen and Minny (Octavia Spencer) assuage Skeeter’s so-called guilt and encourage her to go – as if there was ever a possibility Skeeter wasn’t taking off.  Meanwhile Aibileen is unemployed with little to no prospects, and Minny appears destined for a life of servitude with no hope of upward mobility.  In my reimagined scene, Skeeter informs Aibileen and Minny about her job offer.  She justifies her departure while Aibileen and Minny smile politely and exchange knowing looks.  As Aibileen and Minny reflect on the injustice of being used once again, their words wish her well but their eyes do not.  That would have been more realistic.

“I found God in myself and I loved her.  I loved her fiercely.” – Ntozake Shange

Nothing But a Man

I discovered Nothing But a Man in college.  It is now one of my favorite films and the best onscreen depiction of a relationship between a black man and black woman and how it is impacted by racism, loss of income and a child from a previous relationship.  Initially, most of my attention was drawn to the commanding presence of Ivan Dixon as Duff.  I thought his wife Josie (Abbey Lincoln) was too agreeable.  However, with maturity I began to appreciate Josie’s quiet strength and admired how she continued loving Duff, even when he didn’t love himself.  In the midst of hate, violence and patriarchy, Josie did not allow herself to be defined by others’ fears, insecurities and ignorance.  She retained a kind, loving nature and strong sense of self.  Now that’s a shero!  It was then that I began to recognize those qualities in many of the women around me like my mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends.  This is why I don’t get upset or put much stock into how we’re portrayed and perceived anymore.  People who want to believe the worst are going to do so regardless.  I don’t need television and movies to affirm me.  There are sheros all around me, and every now and then I see my shero smiling back at me in the mirror.

 

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American Dream, Analysis, cinema, Classics, Film, history, Marlon Brando, Movies, Reviews, The Godfather

The Godfather and America

“I believe in America.  America has made my fortune

So begins one of the greatest films ever made, and my personal favorite, The Godfather.  There are so many things to love about this movie.  Puzo’s writing.  Coppola’s interpretation.  The sage counsel: “Leave the gun.  Take the cannoli.”  I could go on and on.  Nevertheless, if I had to choose the one thing that makes The Godfather a timeless classic, it would be how it dramatizes the double standards that exist within such cherished American institutions as the criminal justice system, politics, news and entertainment media, and organized religion.

American Ideal:  The criminal justice system entitles all citizens to equal protection under the law regardless of race, creed or color.

“I went to the police, like a good American.  These two boys were brought to trial.  The judge sentenced them to three years in prison – suspended sentence.  Suspended sentence!  They went free that very day!  I stood in the courtroom like a fool.  And those two bastards, they smiled at me.  Then I said to my wife, for justice, we must go to Don Corleone.” –Amerigo Bonasera

Protection under the law is neither equal nor color-blind.  According to a recent report by the Bureau of Justice, the rate of imprisonment for black males is 6.5 times that of white males and 2.5 that of Hispanic males.  Contributing factors include the ability to pay for high quality legal services and discrimination in prosecution, the rendering of verdicts and sentencing based on race and class.  Unfortunately, the ironically named Amerigo Bonasera learned this lesson the hard way.  Despite assimilating and defining himself as a “good American,” in the eyes of the court, Amerigo’s rights and personhood as an Italian immigrant and those of his daughter were deemed less valuable than those of the two white teens who brutalized her.

American Ideal:  The police serve and protect law-abiding citizens and enforce the law.

“What’s the Turk paying you to set up my father, Captain?” – Michael Corleone

Indeed, there are corrupt police officers who abuse the law by participating in illegal activities for financial gain.  There are also police officers who sometimes perceive criminality where there is none based on their limited perceptions and prejudices.  As a result, law-abiding citizens have been assaulted and even killed.  Unfortunately, there appears to be no end in sight to this injustice.  Recently a Texas jury ruled in favor of a white police officer who shot an unarmed black man on New Year’s Eve, in front of his parents, after mistakenly assuming the man was driving a stolen car.  Although Michael was a war hero and still a law-abiding citizen at this point in the story, the above inquiry was answered with a jaw-breaking punch and he was almost arrested.  In this instance, “serve and protect” was reserved for mafia-connected drug dealers.

American Ideal:  As elected representatives, politicians serve in the best interest of those they represent.

Michael: “My father’s no different than any other powerful man, any man who’s responsible for other people.  Like a senator or a president.”
Kay: “You know how naive you sound?”
Michael: “Why?”
Kay: “Senators and presidents don’t have men killed.”
Michael: “Oh, who’s being naïve, Kay?”

Some politicians put the interests of sponsors, lobbyists and corporations ahead of the needs of their constituents.  These politicians set their priorities based on the financial benefits, be it from industries, such as oil and health care, or deep-pocketed individuals.  Vito had quite a few politicians and judges on his payroll, which was evident by the gifts sent to his daughter on her wedding day and his assignment for the “Jew congressman in another district.”

American Ideal:  The news is presented truthfully and objectively.

“That’s a terrific story.  And we have newspaper people on the payroll, don’t we, Tom? And they might like a story like that.” – Michael Corleone 

The integrity of the news is often compromised by subjective reporting, propaganda and personal agendas.  Public opinion is frequently manipulated by the suppression of information and contrasting viewpoints.  The Corleone Family, through their contacts, reframed the news coverage of the police captain’s murder to shift the public’s attention from the policeman’s murder to police corruption.

American Ideal:  Hollywood movies are harmless entertainment with fair and realistic portrayals of diverse characters.

Jack Woltz: “Johnny Fontane will never get that movie!  I don’t care how many dago guinea wop greaseball goombahs come out of the woodwork!”
Tom Hagen: “I’m German-Irish.”
Jack Woltz: “Well, let me tell you something, my kraut-mick friend…”

Movies made within the Hollywood film industry sometimes reflect narrow worldviews.  This often results in racial stereotypes and perpetuates a cycle of intolerance that is very harmful.  The Jack Woltz character offers insights regarding this – from the racial slurs in his interaction with Tom to his life at home where his black servants are in the background, barely noticeable and insignificant.  One could reasonably conclude that black characters and possibly other minorities in Woltz’s movies would be one-dimensional and insignificant to the plot.  Ironically, Marlon Brando refused his Best Actor Academy Award for The Godfather to protest the treatment of Native Americans by the film industry.  Brando stirred up more controversy in 1996 when he described Hollywood as being “run by Jews.”  He went on to accuse those in charge of disparaging other racial groups.  After much criticism and backlash, Brando apologized for his comments.

American Ideal:  Those who observe and practice religious rituals lead godly lives.

“But I’m gonna wait – after the baptism.  I’ve decided to be godfather to Connie’s baby.  And then I’ll meet with Don Barzini and Tattaglia – all of the heads of the Five Families.” – Michael Corleone

Participating in religious rituals and attending church does not automatically indicate godliness and/or morality.  Members of the clergy have been accused of stealing money, committing adultery, substance abuse, sexual molestation and domestic violence.  For Michael, agreeing to be godfather for his nephew was not done out of love for his sister, it was a business transaction.  Michael used his nephew’s baptism as a cover while the heads of the five families were murdered per his orders.  This scene delivers one of the most effective montages in cinema history and establishes Michael’s cold-bloodedness, his point of no return.  [A more in-depth analysis of Michael Corleone and his transformation from college-educated war hero to ruthless mafia don will follow at a later date.]

In spite of its imperfections, I still believe in America.  I believe in the American ideals of freedom, truth and justice.  While it’s true that The Godfather sheds light on some of America’s flaws and hypocrisies, accepting reality is a step in the right direction towards eventually achieving those ideals.  Like Michael said to Vito, “We’ll get there…”  One day and one person at a time, that is.